Criteria for the Annotation of Implicit Stereotypes

Schmeisser-Nieto, Wolfgang S., Montserrat Nofre, Mariona Taulé
Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2022), 753–762, Marseille, 20-25 June.

The growth of social media has brought with it a massive channel for spreading and reinforcing stereotypes. This issue becomes critical when the affected targets are minority groups such as women, the LGBT+ community and immigrants. Although from the perspective of computational linguistics, the detection of this kind of stereotypes is steadily improving, most stereotypes are expressed implicitly and identifying them automatically remains a challenge. One of the problems we found for tackling this issue is the lack of an operationalised definition of implicit stereotypes that would allow us to annotate consistently new corpora by characterising the different forms in which stereotypes appear. In this paper, we present thirteen criteria for annotating implicitness which were elaborated to facilitate the subjective task of identifying the presence of stereotypes. We also present NewsCom-Implicitness, a corpus of 1,911 sentences, of which 426 comprise explicit and implicit racial stereotypes. An experiment was carried out to evaluate the applicability of these criteria. The results indicate that different criteria obtain different inter-annotator agreement values and that there is a greater agreement when more criteria can be identified in one sentence. 

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